Here’s an update to the figures I posted in 2012.
Actually, the first figure isn’t really an update because the Bureau of Justice Statistics doesn’t seem to publish complete incarceration rates by age, race/ethnicity, and sex anymore. These are just state and federal prisoners sentenced to a year or more — jail isn’t included. (This is from the report called Prisoners in 2013, because the “Correctional Populations in…” series doesn’t include the race/ethnic breakdown anymore.)
The highest bar in the 2010 figure was 9,892 per 100,000 for Black men in their early 30s, much higher than these — as you can see in the second figure, jail adds almost half again to the number of people in prison. So this isn’t a good measure of the total impact of incarceration, but it does show the racial/ethnic inequality: the Black bars are between 3.8-times higher than the White bars (age 65+) and 9.5-times higher (ages 18-19); the Latino bars are between 2.1- and 3.6-times higher.
And here is the total trend of unfree people: prison, jail, parole, and probation, from Correctional Populations in 2013:
This includes people of all genders, but doesn’t include some others held against their will in other institutions (which are much smaller). And we don’t get the race/ethnic breakdown. You can see that we’ve had some declines. Prisoners have dropped 2.5% since 2009. The fact that the parole numbers are still rising is one indication of how long it will take to get the total amount of unfreedom down — if we really do continue in that direction.
I reviewed some of the connections between mass incarceration and family inequality in these and related posts: